3-12 Betulaceae, birch family

Marian C. Munro, Ruth E. Newell, Nicholas M. Hill


Betulaceae is a family of trees and shrubs included in six genera; four of which contain species native to Nova Scotia. Mostly ranging throughout  the northern hemisphere, 120 species are found worldwide, generally in temperate climates. Flowers are unisexual; species are monoecious. Staminate catkins are pendulous; pistillate catkins are erect or pendulous, usually firm and often woody. Petals are lacking; sepals tend to be tiny. Fruit is a samara or a nut with a single seed. Leaves are simple, alternate and mostly serrate. Venation is straight and pinnate. Photographs  by Martin Thomas, Sean Blaney, Marian Munro, Alain Belliveau, and David Mazerolle.


Magnoliophyte, birch family, dicots, Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Ostrya, alder, ironwood, hazelnut, catkins, trees, shrubs.

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