Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Literature and the Impact on Caregivers

Ryan Doucet, Rima Azar, Shelly Doucet, Alison Luke

Abstract


Introduction: Conduct disorder (CD) is a problematic psychiatric disorder that presents significant challenges for caregivers and families. CD itself has an abundance of literature, although minimal focus has been given toward caregiver mental health and overall well-being. Objectives:  This paper reviewed the literature on the burden of caring for youth with CD on caregivers’ mental health. Specifically, we (a) briefly synthesized the existing knowledge on the impact of CD on caregivers while pointing to gaps in literature, and (b) provided recommendations to clinicians caring for youth with CD and their families. Methods: Using specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, we located published studies from 2000–2020 on CD and caregivers’ mental health from PsycInfo and PubMed. Results: The four articles that met inclusion criteria for this review utilized different scales and interview techniques to measure caregiver strain, making quantitative comparisons challenging. However, three prevalent reoccurring themes were present among these articles: an increase in caregiver negative emotional states, poor parent-child relationships, and adverse effects on caregivers’ spousal relations while caring for a youth with CD. Conclusion/Discussion: This literature review noted the paucity of empirical research on CD and caregiver strain. Our findings reiterate the negative impact this disorder has on caregivers’ mental health, child-parent relationships, and spousal relations. CD is responsible for substantial societal costs due to criminality and special education arrangements; however, many secondary issues of CD may be offset through access to parenting programs such as Triple P and proper access to clinical support teams.


Full Text:

PDF

References


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Antonovsky, A. (1996). The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International, 11(1), 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/11.1.11

Armitage, S., Parkinson, M., Halligan, S., & Reynolds, S. (2020). Mothers’ experiences of having an adolescent child with depression: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(6), 1617–1629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01705-5

Burke, J. D., & Romano-Verthelyi, A. M. (2018). Oppositional defiant disorder. In M. M. Martel (Ed.), Developmental pathways to disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders (pp. 21–52). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811323-3.00002-X

Burt, S. A., & Klump, K. L. (2014). Parent-child conflict as an etiological moderator of childhood conduct problems: An example of a ‘bioecological’ gene-environment interaction. Psychological Medicine, 44(5), 1065–1076. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713001190

Carpenter, B. (2005). Early childhood intervention: Possibilities and prospects for professionals, families and children. British Journal of Special Education, 32(4), 176–183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.2005.00394.x

Chaudhury, P., Bhattacharya, B., & Saha, P. K. (2020). Parent-child relationship and marital quality of parents of conduct or oppositional defiant disorder and unaffected individuals: A comparative study. Psychological Studies, 65(2), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-019-00543-w

Evans, S. W., Sibley, M., Serpell, Z. N. (2009). Changes in caregiver strain over time in young adolescents with ADHD: The role of oppositional and delinquent behavior. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(6), 516–524. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1087054708322987

Foster, E. M., Jones, D. E., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2005). The high costs of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1767–1772. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2004.061424

Friedli, L., & Parsonage, M. (2007, November). Mental health promotion: Building an economic case. Northern Ireland Association for Mental Health. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308339133_Mental_health_promotion_building_an_economic_case

Glickman, A. R. (2003). Parental monitoring of children exposed to community violence: Predicting externalizing behaviors (Publication No. 3096375) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Miami]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Haber, J. R., Bucholz, K. K., Jacob, T., Grant, J. D., Scherrer, J. F., Sartor, C. E., Duncan, A. E., & Heath, A. (2010). Effect of paternal alcohol and drug dependence on offspring conduct disorder: Gene-environment interplay. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(5), 652–663. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2010.71.652

Jennings, W. G., Perez, N. M., & Reingle Gonzalez, J. M. (2018). Conduct disorder and neighborhood effects. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14, 317–341. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084911

Katz, B. N., Esparza, P., Carter, J. S., Grant, K. E., & Meyerson, D. A. (2012). Intervening processes in the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and psychological symptoms in urban youth. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 32(5), 650–680. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431611414060

Linares, L. O., Heeren, T., Bronfman, E., Zuckerman, B., Augustyn, M., & Tronick, E. (2001). A mediational model for the impact of exposure to community violence on early child behavior problems. Child Development, 72(2), 639–652. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00302

Manor-Binyamini, I. (2012). Parenting children with conduct disorder in Israel: Caregiver burden and the sense of coherence. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(6), 781–785. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-011-9474-x

Meltzer, H., Ford, T., Goodman, R., & Vostanis, P. (2011). The burden of caring for children with emotional or conduct disorders. International Journal of Family Medicine, 2011, Article 801203. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/801203 c

Minh, A., Muhajarine, N., Janus, M., Brownell, M., & Guhn, M. (2017). A review of neighborhood effects and early child development: How, where, and for whom, do neighborhoods matter? Health & Place, 46, 155–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.04.012

Oshio, T. (2008). A longitudinal examination of harsh discipline

and externalizing behavior: An ecological perspective (Publication No. 3331988) [Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Pardini, D., & Frick, P. J. (2013). Multiple developmental pathways to conduct disorder: Current conceptualizations and clinical implications. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(1), 20–25. https://www.cacap-acpea.org/wp-content/uploads/Multiple-Developmental-Pathways-Pardini.pdf

Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12381

Popov, L. M., & Ilesanmi, R. A. (2015). Parent-child relationship: Peculiarities and outcome. Review of European Studies, 7(5), 253–263. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v7n5p253

Riina, E. M., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Parent-to-child physical aggression, neighborhood cohesion, and development of children’s internalizing and externalizing. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(6), 468–477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2014.04.005

Roosa, M. W., Deng, S., Ryu, E., Burrell, G. L., Tein, J.-Y, Jones, S., Lopez, V., & Crowder, S. (2005). Family and child characteristics linking neighborhood context and child externalizing behavior. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(2), 515–529. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2005.00132.x

Sajadi, S., Raheb, G., Maarefvand, M., & Alhosseini, K. A. (2020). Family problems associated with conduct disorder perceived by patients, families and professionals. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 9, Article 184. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_110_20

Salvatore, J. E., & Dick, D. M. (2018). Genetic influences on conduct disorder. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 91, 91–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.06.034

Sanders, M. R., Kirby, J. N., Tellegen, C. L., & Day, J. J. (2014). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(4), 337–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.04.003

Sanders, M. R., Ralph, A., Sofronoff, K., Gardiner, P., Thompson, R., Dwyer, S., & Bidwell, K. (2008). Every family: A population approach to reducing behavioral and emotional problems in children making the transition to school. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 29(3), 197–222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-008-0139-7

Scott, S., Knapp, M., Henderson, J., & Maughan, B. (2001). Financial cost of social exclusion: Follow up study of antisocial children into adulthood. BMJ, 323. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7306.191

Skotarczak, L., & Lee, G. K. (2015). Effects of parent management training programs on disruptive behavior for children with a developmental disability: A meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 272–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.004




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15273/hpj.v1i2.10661

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Healthy Populations Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.