Canadian Waste Tire Practices and Their Potential in Sustainable Construction
Keywords:Waste Management, Sustainable Construction, Waste Tires
This paper is an analysis of two provincial waste tire management programs and the potential that exists using repurposed tires in sustainable construction. In an effort to mitigate the environmental hazards waste tire piles present, Canadian provinces have responded in various ways to repurpose tires for several different uses. While the tire reprocessing programs of Nova Scotia and British Columbia produce a wide variety of different recycled-material products, they both depend on secondary industrial processes to break down the existing tire structure in to its bare components. To capitalize on the initial energy inputs that exist in tire fabrication and avoid further reliance on energy-intensive industrial reprocessing, waste tire use in sustainable construction is proposed. The pioneering architecture firm Earthship Biotecture is examined to highlight the potential that exists by reprocessing tires in rammed earth tire homes.
AIA Canada. (2004). Shifting into high gear - The benefits of pollution prevention practices in the automotive aftermarket. Retrieved from: www.aiacanada.com/uploads/Final%20EBP%20 Report.pdf
Bui, Q.B., Morel, J.C., Venkatarama Reddy, B.V., & Ghayad, W. (2009). Durability of rammed earth walls exposed for 20 years to natural weathering. Building and Environment, 44, 912–919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.07.001
Canadian Association of Tire Recycling Agencies. (2006). Scrap tire recycling in Canada - From scrap to value. Retrieved from: www.catraonline.ca/pdf/Recyc_2006_Pneus.pdf
Earthship Biotecture. (2012a). The offgassing non-issue. Tires are hazardous in piles not Earthships. Retrieved from: http://www.earthship.com/Earthship-Designs/offgassing.html
Earthship Biotecture. (2012b). Sustainable green buildings - Construction materials. Retrieved from: http://www.earthship.com/construction-materials
Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act, 2007, c.7 online. Retrieved from: http://nslegislature.ca/legc/bills/60th_1st/3rd_read/b146.htm
Freney, M. (2012) Life Cycle Assessment of Earthship Architecture, Earthship Biotecture Newsletter July 2012, retrieved from: http://www.earthship.com/ecological-impact-of-earthships.html
Gray, T. (2009). TDA Processing [Powerpoint]. Retrieved from: www.rrfb.com/uploads/file/rrfb/ TDA.Processing--Gray.pdf
Grindley, P., & Hutchinson, M. (1996). The Thermal Behaviours of an Earthship. Renewable Energy, 8(1–4), 154-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0960-1481(96)88835-5
Halifax C & D Recycling. (2012, November 12th). Tire recycling. Retrieved from: http:// halifaxcdrecycling.ca/tire-recycling
Humphrey, D., & Sweet, M. (2006). Literature review of the water quality effects of tire derived aggregate and rubber modified asphalt pavement. Retrieved from: www.epa.gov/osw/ conserve/materials/tires/tdastudy.pdf
Humphrey, S.. (2009). Civil Engineering Applications of Tire Derived Aggregate, Resource Recovery Fund Board Presentation, February 20th, 2009.
Humphrey, D. (2011). Civil engineering application of tire derived aggregate (TDA). California Integrated Waste Management Board. Retrieved from: http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov /publications/Detail.aspx?PublicationID=1401
Ip, K., & Miller, A. (2009). Thermal behaviour of an earth-sheltered autonomous building – The Brighton Earthship. Renewable Energy, 34(9), 2037-2043. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.02.006
Krömer, S., Kreipe, E., Reichenbach, D., & Stark, R. (1999). Life cycle assessment of a car tire. Continental. Retrieved from: http://www.conti-online.com/generator/www/com/en/ continental/csr/themes/ecology/download/oekobilanz_en.pdf
Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency. (2009). Compare annual heating costs of heating systems and energy savings, Retrieved from: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/equipment/ heating/
Pehlken, A., & Essadiqi, E. (2005). Scrap tire recycling in Canada – Climate change. CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, MTL 2005-08. Retrieved from: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/ www.nrcan.gc.ca.minerals-metals/files/pdf/mms-smm/busi-indu/rad-rad/pdf/scr-tir-rec-peh-eng.pdf
Resource Recovery Fund Board Nova Scotia. (2012). Procurement policy. Retrieved from: https://rrfb.com/uploads/file/policies/RRFB-Procurement_Policy_Jan2012_%20FINAL.pdf
Schroen, D., Pierce, B., & Gryba, R. (2012). Rammed Earth Tire Packing – Process Design, Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/1993/5141
Taylor P., & Luther M.B. (2004). Evaluating rammed earth walls: a case study. Solar Energy, 76, 79-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2003.08.026
University of Buffalo Center for Integrated Waste Management, (2012), Beneficial uses of TDA in civil engineering applications. Retrieved from: http://www.tdanys.buffalo.edu/UB/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=75
Papers published in the Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management must be the original, unpublished work of the author. Contributors are responsible for obtaining any copyright clearances required in relation to their work.
Authors submitting a paper to the Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management automatically agree to grant a limited license to DJIM if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. This license gives permission for DJIM to publish the paper in a given issue and to maintain the work in the electronic journal archive. DJIM also submits issues to institutional repositories and Open Access repositories.
Contributors agree to each reader accessing, downloading, or printing one copy of their article for their own personal use or research. All other copyrights remain with the author, subject to the requirements that any republication of the work be accompanied by an acknowledgement that the work was first published in the Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management and that the DJIM Editorial Chair must be notified of any republication of a work first published in DJIM.
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management
c/o School of Information Management
Faculty of Management
Kenneth C. Rowe Management Building
6100 University Avenue
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5
Authors should recognize that, because of the nature of the Internet, the publisher has no control over unauthorized copying or editing of protected works.